Surveying-1(Civil 2-1)

OBJECTIVE: To ensure that the student develops knowledge of the basic and conventional surveying instruments, principles behind them, working of the instruments, plotting of the area from the field measurements, determination of the area and the theory behind curves.

BASIC CONCEPTS: Surveying – History; Definition; primary divisions, Classification, Principles of surveying Plan and map; Basic Measurements; Instruments and Basic methods;Units of measurement, Scales used for Maps and plans, Duties of a surveyor. Errors:Accuracy and Precision Sources and types of errors, theory of Probability, Rounding of numbers.
CHAIN SURVEYING: Instruments for chaining, Ranging out, chaining a line on a flat ground; Chaining on an uneven or a sloping ground; Chain & Tape corrections; Degree of accuracy. Principles of chain surveying; Basic definitions; Well-Conditioned Triangle, Field book, Field work; Offsets, Cross Staff survey; obstacles in chain survey-problems, Conventional signs.

COMPASS SURVEY: Introduction, Bearings and angles, Designation of bearings, Conversion of bearings from one system to the other, fore bearing and back bearing, Calculation of bearing from angles, Theory of Magnetic compass (i.e. Prismatic compass), Temporary adjustments of compass-Magnetic Declination, Local attraction-Related Problems-Errors in compass survey.
PLANE TABLE SURVEYING: Introduction, Accessories, Working operations, Methods of plane tabling, Three point problem-Mechanical method -Graphical method, Two point problem, Errors in plane tabling.

LEVELLING: Introduction, basic definitions, methods of leveling, leveling instruments: dumpy level, levelling staff, Temporary adjustments of dumpy level, theory of simple and differential leveling, Level field book, Classification of direct leveling methods, Reciprocal leveling, Profile leveling and Cross sectioning, Curvature and Refraction, Difficulties in leveling, errors in leveling, Degree of Precision.
CONTOURING: Introduction, contour interval, Characteristics of contours Methods of locating contours - Direct and indirect methods; Interpolation and sketching of contours, Contour gradient-Uses of contour maps.

THEODOLITE: Vernier Theodolite: Basic definitions; Fundamental lines and desired relations; Temporary adjustments; Measurement of a horizontal angle; Repetition and Reiteration methods of horizontal angle measurement. Measurement of vertical angle; Sources of errors in Theodolite survey.
TRAVERSE SURVEYING: Introduction, Selection and marking of traverse stations, methods of traversing, traversing by free needle and fast needle method, traversing by direct observation of angles, checks in closed traverse, closing error, methods of balancing the traverse, Gale’s traverse table, Omitted measurements.

COMPUTATION OF AREAS AND VOLUMES: methods of determining areas, areas by sub-division into triangles, areas from offsets to a base line: regular and irregular intervals, area by double meridian distances, area by co-ordinates. embankments and cutting for a level section, two level sections, three level section and multi level section, volume of earth work from contour plan, capacity of a reservoir , volume of barrow pits.
MINOR INSTRUMENTS: Uses and working of the minor instruments: hand level, line ranger, optical square, Abney level, clinometers, pantagraph, sextant and planimeter.

Study Material's for Surveying-I

2 Mark's for 5 Units: Download

Basic Concepts: Download
Chain Surveying: Download

Compass Survey(PPT): Download
Plane Table Survey(PPT): Download
Plane Table Survey(PDF): Download

Levelling & Countering: Download

Theodolite Surveying(PPT): Download
Traverse Surveying: Download

Area's & Volumes: Download
Minor Instruments: Download